Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and can continue through adolescence and adulthood. The American Psychiatric Association states in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) that 5% of children have ADHD.1 However, studies in the United States have estimated higher rates in community samples. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behavior, and hyperactivity (over-activity).2 ADHD has three subtypes: predominantly hyperactive-impulsivepredominantly inattentive, and combined hyperactive-impulsive and inattentive. Like many other disorders, ADHD probably results from a combination of factors. Some of the possible factors include genetics, environment, brain injuries, sugar, and food additives.2

Treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has two important components which are psychotherapy interventions for both the child and the parents (or the adult with ADHD) and medications.


  1. American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition: DSM-5. Washington: American Psychiatric Association, 2013.

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